Kahler-Chern-Simons theory, which was proposed as a generalization of ordinary Chern-Simons theory, is explored in more detail. The theory describes anti-self-dual instantons on a four-dimensional Kahler manifold. The phase space is the space of gauge potentials, whose symplectic reduction by the constraints of anti-self-duality leads to the moduli space of instantons. We show that infinitesimal Backlund transformations, previously related to "hidden symmetries" of instantons, are canonical transformations generated by the anti-self-duality constraints. The quantum wave functions naturally lead to a generalized Wess-Zumino-Witten action, which in turn has associated chiral current algebras. The dimensional reduction of the anti-self-duality equations leading to integrable two-dimensional theories is briefly discussed in this framework.